Installing Kali Linux on ProxMox – Building a Penetration Test Lab – Part 2

In the process of building a Penetration Test Lab, I wanted to get started with the installation of Kali Linux virtual machine running on ProxMox. To get started, first download the latest version of Kali Linux (ISO) here. Grab the version

Kali 64 bit ISO | Torrent 2.6G 2017.1

Build your new VM (Proxmox > Create VM) using the ISO you’ve downloaded.

According to other user’s accounts of Kali not working after installation, it’s recommended to change the display type to VMWare compatible: After building the VM, change Hardware > Display > Edit > Choose VMWare compatible:

Kali installs onto a virtual hard drive on ProxMox (we will not be running a “live” version of Kali.) Start the new VM and scroll down the menu and choose Install  – (not GUI install.)

During installation, when grub asks where to have grub installed, choose “select your own location.”
Manually enter the path: /dev/sda
Otherwise, if you choose the ‘default’ or the path already listed, after completing the installation and a restart, you’ll get a message “Booting from Hard Disk” and the boot sequence will not complete, the VM will essentially hang.

Kali has completed its setup, I’ve booted the Kali VM, I’ve logged in, and I’m on the desktop.

Run apt-get update and apt-get upgrade to update the packages on your system.

Before we go on to complete the setup of the rest of our lab with known-vulnerable hosts, let’s run some cursory nmap scans.

Let’s run a ping scan on our own network with the command:

nmap -v -sn

This says: nmap, print verbose output (-v), do a Ping Scan (-sn) – (disable the default port scan for each address), and use the network with a CIDR of /24.

This scan will attempt to ping all 254 addresses. The highlights of the scan are below:

root@HN-kali01:~# nmap -v -sn

Starting Nmap 7.40 ( ) at 2017-08-04 15:13 PDT
Initiating ARP Ping Scan at 15:13
Scanning 255 hosts [1 port/host]
Completed ARP Ping Scan at 15:13, 1.95s elapsed (255 total hosts)
Initiating Parallel DNS resolution of 255 hosts. at 15:13
Completed Parallel DNS resolution of 255 hosts. at 15:13, 5.53s elapsed
Nmap scan report for [host down]
Nmap scan report for pfSense2x.jasoncoltrin.local (
Host is up (0.00048s latency).
MAC Address: 62:65:B1:30:52:A7 (Unknown)
Nmap scan report for [host down]
Nmap scan report for [host down]

Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.00049s latency).
MAC Address: 18:03:73:34:34:36 (Dell)
Nmap scan report for [host down]
Nmap scan report for [host down]

So here we see that the scan detected my pfSense virtual machine firewall on IP, and gave me the MAC Address.

Let’s take a closer look at my the Dell workstation found on To do so, let’s run a port scan:

nmap -p 1-65535 -sV -sS -T4

This scan does the following:

Run a full port scan on ports 1-65535, detect service versions, run a Stealth Syn scan, use T4 timing and the target of the scan is IP

Below are the results:

root@HN-kali01:~# nmap -p 1-65535 -sV -sS -T4

Starting Nmap 7.40 ( ) at 2017-08-04 15:17 PDT
Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.00047s latency).
Not shown: 65528 filtered ports
135/tcp   open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
139/tcp   open  netbios-ssn  Microsoft Windows netbios-ssn
445/tcp   open  microsoft-ds Microsoft Windows 7 - 10 microsoft-ds (workgroup: WORKGROUP)
2179/tcp  open  vmrdp?
27036/tcp open  ssl/steam    Valve Steam In-Home Streaming service (TLSv1.2 PSK)
49666/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
49667/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
MAC Address: 18:03:73:34:34:36 (Dell)
Service Info: Host: JCDESKTOP; OS: Windows; CPE: cpe:/o:microsoft:windows

Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 141.84 seconds

Because I don’t always like to use my new Kali VM via the ProxMox console, I want to run my Kali desktop over VNC & SSH. Here is a good resource for learning how to connect to your Kali Linux system with VNC over a secure SSH connection:

In the next post, we’ll look some more at NMAP, as well as some other pen-test tools.

Security – Blue Team – Building a security project on a budget

How to Create and Build a Security Profile for Your Network on a Budget – Part 1

Start with Building a Foundation (or use an existing good one).

Credit to Kyle Bubp &

Use a Base Framework for your security project. There are a lot of standards available and the NIST government standards are a good solid foundation:

  • NIST 800-53
  • NIST Cybersecurity Framework
  • NIST CSF Tool
  • CIS Critical Security Controls
  • NIST-CSF tool – this is a nice visual tool – graphical interface for the stages of building a security program

Document everything

A core documentation repository is critical when setting up a security project – others will follow you and will need to look up the information you have recorded. It’s best to have a security incident response ticketing system and documentation before you need it. Have these tools up and ready.

For policy, procedure, how-tos, etc:

  • MediaWiki(free)
  • Atlassian Confluence ($10 for 10 users) – glyfee plugin for confluence
  • OneNote/SharePoint – not every company is entirely open source

Incident Response Ticketing/Documentation systems:

Map out your entire network

  • NetDB – Uses ARP tables and MAC databases on your network gear. (use a service account and NetDB will use ssh/telnet to find every device connected, will give a nice http interface. You can setup a cron job that will scan NetDB database every hour. You can pipe new device connections to an email address. Knowing if something comes onto your network is critical.

.ova is available at

Supports the following: Cisco, Palo Alto, JunoOS, Aruba, Dell Powerconnect

  • nmap scans + ndiff/yandiff – not just for red teams; export results, diff for changes. Alert if something changed.
  • NetDisco – uses SNMP to inventory your network devices.

  • Map your network – create a Visio document and have a good network map.


Facebook-developed osquery and this tool can give you all you need.

Agents for MacOS, Windows, Linux

Deploy across your enterprise w/ Chef, Puppet, or SCCM

Do fun things like search for IoC’s (FBI file hashes, processes) – pipe the data into ElasticStack for visibility & search-ability

User Data Discovery

OpenDLP – (github) or (download an .ova) – will scan file shares and using a normal user account you can scan for available shares and data. Run over the weekend and see what you can find. Find the data owners and determine where the data should reside.

Hardening Your Network

CIS Benchmarks – Center for Internet Security Benchmarks: 100+ configuration guidelines for various technology groups to safeguard systems against today’s evolving cyber threats.

Out of the box, windows 10 is 22% for the CIS benchmark.

It’s difficult to secure your network if everything is a snowflake. While not exciting, configuration management is important. Deploy configs across your org using tools like GPO, Chef, or Puppet.

Change management is also important – use git repo for trackign changes to your config scripts.

Safety vs. Risk

Scanning for Vulnerabilities:

OpenVAS (greenbone) is a fork of Nessus which is still maintained, is the default vulnerability scanner in AlienVault. It does a great job in comparison with commercial products. Be careful, do some safe scans first and it’s not recommended to scan critical life-support equipment for example in a hospital.

Scan web apps:

Arachni Framework – for finding bugs in your developer’s code

OWASP ZAP (Zed Attack Proxy)

Nikto2 (Server config scanner)

Portswigger Burp Suite (not free – $350)

Harden your web servers:

Fail2ban – python-based IPS that runs off of Apache Logs

ModSecurity – Open source WAF for Apache & IIS