Security – Blue Team – Building a security project on a budget

How to Create and Build a Security Profile for Your Network on a Budget – Part 1

Start with Building a Foundation (or use an existing good one).

Credit to Kyle Bubp & irongeek.com: http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=videos/bsidescleveland2017/bsides-cleveland-102-blue-teamin-on-a-budget-of-zero-kyle-bubp

Use a Base Framework for your security project. There are a lot of standards available and the NIST government standards are a good solid foundation:

  • NIST 800-53
  • NIST Cybersecurity Framework
  • NIST CSF Tool
  • CIS Critical Security Controls
  • NIST-CSF tool – this is a nice visual tool – graphical interface for the stages of building a security program

Document everything

A core documentation repository is critical when setting up a security project – others will follow you and will need to look up the information you have recorded. It’s best to have a security incident response ticketing system and documentation before you need it. Have these tools up and ready.

For policy, procedure, how-tos, etc:

  • MediaWiki(free)
  • Atlassian Confluence ($10 for 10 users) – glyfee plugin for confluence
  • OneNote/SharePoint – not every company is entirely open source

Incident Response Ticketing/Documentation systems:

Map out your entire network

  • NetDB – Uses ARP tables and MAC databases on your network gear. (use a service account and NetDB will use ssh/telnet to find every device connected, will give a nice http interface. You can setup a cron job that will scan NetDB database every hour. You can pipe new device connections to an email address. Knowing if something comes onto your network is critical.

.ova is available at https://www.kylebubp.com/files/netdb.ova

Supports the following: Cisco, Palo Alto, JunoOS, Aruba, Dell Powerconnect

  • nmap scans + ndiff/yandiff – not just for red teams; export results, diff for changes. Alert if something changed.
  • NetDisco

https://sourceforge.net/projects/netdisco – uses SNMP to inventory your network devices.

  • Map your network – create a Visio document and have a good network map.

Visibility

Facebook-developed osquery and this tool can give you all you need.

Agents for MacOS, Windows, Linux

Deploy across your enterprise w/ Chef, Puppet, or SCCM

Do fun things like search for IoC’s (FBI file hashes, processes) – pipe the data into ElasticStack for visibility & search-ability

User Data Discovery

OpenDLP – (github) or (download an .ova) – will scan file shares and using a normal user account you can scan for available shares and data. Run over the weekend and see what you can find. Find the data owners and determine where the data should reside.

Hardening Your Network

CIS Benchmarks – Center for Internet Security Benchmarks: 100+ configuration guidelines for various technology groups to safeguard systems against today’s evolving cyber threats.

Out of the box, windows 10 is 22% for the CIS benchmark.

It’s difficult to secure your network if everything is a snowflake. While not exciting, configuration management is important. Deploy configs across your org using tools like GPO, Chef, or Puppet.

Change management is also important – use git repo for trackign changes to your config scripts.

Safety vs. Risk

Scanning for Vulnerabilities:

OpenVAS (greenbone) is a fork of Nessus which is still maintained, is the default vulnerability scanner in AlienVault. It does a great job in comparison with commercial products. Be careful, do some safe scans first and it’s not recommended to scan critical life-support equipment for example in a hospital.

Scan web apps:

Arachni Framework – for finding bugs in your developer’s code

OWASP ZAP (Zed Attack Proxy)

Nikto2 (Server config scanner)

Portswigger Burp Suite (not free – $350)

Harden your web servers:

Fail2ban – python-based IPS that runs off of Apache Logs

ModSecurity – Open source WAF for Apache & IIS

 

 

 

Dell Latitude 3570 SSD HDD upgrade procedure reinstall reset recover Windows 10 on blank disk from DVD

So you received a Dell Latitude e3570 for business and the laptop already has a downgrade Windows 7 Pro Operating System installed on the existing 500GB 7200RPM hard drive. You want to make the machine faster and upgrade to Windows 10, so you decide to install a 120GB SSD HDD (or a Samsung M.2) and then install Windows 10 Pro from scratch. You already have the Dell Windows 10 Pro DVD. The problem is that you don’t have a hard disk image, clone image, cloning software, or machine to clone from the old HDD to the new SSD, nor do you even want to use an existing Operating System image. You don’t want to go through the steps of an upgrade from Windows 7 Pro to Windows 10 Pro and then perform a clone as well. Well, that’s what happened to me and I usually prefer to perform a clean installation from a certified Dell Windows 10 Pro 64-Bit DVD for use with a licensed Dell computer like the one in the picture below. After banging my head over what amounts to a relatively simple solution, and doing some research, I thought I’d spare someone else the pain of what I went through by documenting the solution here.

So, you gleefully pop open the back of the laptop by loosening the cover screws, replace the SATA HDD with your new SSD HDD, and close up the cover again. With an external USB DVD drive, power on the laptop, hit F12, select the Dell DVD as your boot device, and hit a brick wall with the following sequence:

Language > Country > Choose option: Troubleshoot > Reset this PC > Reset this PC: Remove everything :

Error: Reset this PC – Unable to reset your PC. A required drive partition is missing. (cancel)

In this event, what the setup is doing is that it’s assuming you already have Windows 10 installed on the hard drive, and that perhaps it’s corrupted, and you are choosing to have the installer find the default recovery partition that’s already on the hard drive (which it isn’t because it’s a brand new-wiped-clean-by-the-factory SSD). Also, you’d already probably know that if you DID already have the recovery partition on the hard drive that you’d choose the “Repair my computer” option in the boot menu by hitting F12 when starting…

So the problem is actually not difficult to resolve because, in summary, the solution is you merely need to choose the following sequence instead and perform a “Recover from a drive“, not “Reset this PC”. *Note: if you do this, your BIOS may still hold non-recommended Boot and Drive configurations for Windows 10, so be sure to follow the instructions after the screenshots that your BIOS and new SSD HDD is set up for correct secure-boot operations.

Language > Country > Choose option: Troubleshoot > Recover from a drive > Fully clean the drive

At this point, if you have replaced an M2 hard drive, you may have received the following error:  “Unable to reset your pc. The system drive cannot be found.” If this is the case, skip to the bottom of this post to find new information.

Like I said, it’s a good idea to check some BIOS settings and secure your new SSD HDD boot device prior to running the system Recover > Fully clean the drive operation.

  1. First hit F12 and select OTHER OPTIONS: BIOS Setup
  2. Next under General > Boot Sequence, set the Boot List Option to UEFI
  3. Next, under General heading, select Advanced Boot Options and uncheck “Enable Legacy Option ROMs”
  4. Next, under System Configuration, make sure SATA Operation is set to AHCI:
  5. Next, go to the heading Secure Boot and set Secure Boot Enable to Enabled:
  6. Now save all the changes to the BIOS and restart/Save, and hit F12 again, where at the next menu you will use the UEFI BOOT: to your external USB/DVD drive:
  7. Now go ahead and go back to the Troubleshoot > Recover from a drive > Fully clean the drive. *Note: this action will completely destroy anything that is already on the hard drive so before you do this action, be sure you have a backup of what was previously on the drive; if anything.
  8. Once the procedure runs and the machine reboots, you should see the “Recovering this PC” and a percentage status.
  9. The machine will complete the procedure and you may receive the following warning: A configuration change was requested to enable, activate, clear, enable, and activate the TPM – This action will clear and turn on the computer’s TPM (Trusted Platform Module) – WARNING: This request will remove any keys stored in the TPM: Press F12 to enable, activate, clear, enable, and activate the TPM or Press Esc to reject this change request and continue. Unless you have stored keys and want to retain them, go ahead and hit F12. 
  10. The machine will restart a couple more times and finally, you should be prompted with the traditional setup:
  11. Complete the setup, remove the DVD from the computer, restart and enjoy your newly installed Windows 10 Pro on your Latitude 3570 with an SSD hard drive. In my opinion, this is a very worthwhile upgrade and the speed difference between Windows 7 Pro on a spinning HDD as compared to Windows 10 on an SSD is like night and day.

__________________

So if your error encountered during a “Recover from Drive” was:  “Unable to reset your pc. The system drive cannot be found.” then you’ll want to take note. The Purple DVD you are trying to recover from may not include the required M2 Hard drive drivers in order for the installer to find your new hard drive. “Extra Fudge” found some success by downloading the drivers manually (which did not solve the problem for me – more below…) from Intel (if you’re installing an Intel M2 HDD, that is) and that information can be found here:

Dell Recovery disc not working. “Unable to reset your pc. The system drive cannot be found”

The link to the updated drivers in this post can be found here:

https://downloadcenter.intel.com/download/27147/Intel-Rapid-Storage-Technology-Intel-RST-?v=t

Like I said earlier, this fix and was not successful (perhaps because I was installing a Samsung NVMe SSD 960 EVO M.2 drive.)

Finally what solved my problem was to use the new Dell Operating System Imaging Tool, which assumably has the correct M.2 drivers baked into the image.

You’ll need an 8GB or larger drive USB thumb drive to complete this task. Go to Dell support https://support.dell.com, enter in the Service Tag, Select find Drivers Myself, > Select OS Windows 10, and then download the Operating System Image tool.

Next, run the tool and the rest is pretty self-explanatory.

 

How to add a bulk list of Domains into Symantec Cloud MessageLabs Encryption TLS Business Partners

If your email servers support, or are required to enforce transport layer security (TLS), then you can use Symantec TLS Business Partners to configure policies to enforce encryption between your mail servers and the broader public, as well as Symantec’s Email Security Services infrastructure. You can also configure policies to enforce TLS encryption between your domains and the domains of third-party business partner organizations. This article will provide a procedure that demonstrates how to generate a report with Symantec PBE Advanced Domains that displays mail which failed a TLS policy. We then go on to process that report and relax the enforcement of Certificate Validation with the following steps:

 

  1. Scrub the Symantec Report for just email addresses of the intercepted mail.
  2. Remove the first part of the email addresses, leaving only a list of the domain names.
  3. Compare the domains from Step 2 to already-existing TLS Business Partners and leave only those domains that are unique.
  4. Create a new text .txt file with the unique domains, add ‘test@’ to the beginning of each domain to create an email address that can be tested at checktls.com.
  5. Batch test the domains for certain TLS conditions.
  6. Scrub and sort the checktls.com report for only those domains that meet conditions in Step 5.
  7. Upload the list of unique, tested, and scrubbed domains into the Symantec Cloud TLS Business Partners.
  8. Use Symantec to again test the domain for Certificate Validation, enable the domain, and enforce the encryption of traffic to that domain.

Often times, TLS encryption requirements will force end-users and recipients of TLS encrypted email to log into a secure mail portal to authenticate and retrieve messages. Depending on your organization’s policies, you may want to ‘relax’ the level of enforcement of TLS requirements so that users can receive mail in ‘plain text’ as a normal message in the user’s mailbox. These different levels of encryption are scored by traits including the availability of TLS encryption, TLS negotiation, the SSL/TLS Certificate trustworthiness, and other factors.

To a large degree, TLS email encryption has not quite become the standard for many mail servers out there. Many large mail providers such as earthlink.net do not support TLS encrypted email. Some mail servers will allow TLS encyrption (TLSAvailable=100), negotiate a TLS transaction (NegotiatedTLS=100), but not have a valid certificate (CertOK >= 33). Often times, the CertOK value will not reach 100 simply because the certificate on the receiving server is a self-signed certificate.

You can check the support of an email address or domain by visiting checktls.com, enter an email address into the address test, and hit the ‘Try It’ button. For example, when we test postmaster@earthlink.net, our results are as follows:

TLS Receiver Test

In this case, if Symantec /MessageLabs were to try to send a message to the recipient, the message would not be delivered to the recipient mailbox, but quarantined in a secure mail portal. The recipient would then be required to create a secure portal account, log in, and retrieve the message.

If our results above were to demonstrate the passing of all checks with the exception of the CertOK column, then we may want to relax the enforcement of certificate validation in Symantec. But in order to find all of the domains that meet these conditions, (excluding those domains we already have validated and trust), we need to generate reports, scrub the data, and test for the conditions we accept. Once we find the unique domains, we’ll add them into our list of TLS Business Partners.

While the following procedure does not have long-winded explanations and exact step-by-step instructions, the information and screenshots should be enough to get you through the process, hopefully saving you the hours of research and note-taking that I endured. This article does not go over the initial setup of your domain’s email encryption with Symantec. The prerequisites for this guide are that you already have TLS email encyption setup with Symantec Cloud / MessageLabs.com. Also be sure to have Excel 2013 or newer and NotePad++ installed on your computer. Lastly, you may be required to purchase an account with checktls.com to run batch tests.

Lets get started!

We’ll first run a report in the Symantec Cloud / clients.messagelabs.com to find emails intercepted by the service. Starting in the Dashboard, go to Reports > Report Request > Request a new Report > Request name: PBEAdvancedDomains-Date > continue > email summary report (PDF) >

The data we will include in the report are:

  • Email Summary Report (PDF) advanced settings
  • Emails intercepted by the service
  • Data Protection volume
  • Data Protection volume by domain
  • Top 20 Data Protection recipients
  • Email Detailed Report (CSV) advanced settings
  • Data Protection
Message Labs Report 1
MessageLabs Report 2
MessageLabs Report 3
MessageLabs Report 4

Download the Report.zip

Extract to Desktop\TLSReports\RepDomainsDate

Open the EmailDataProtectionDetail.csv

Copy the column “Email To” to a new spreadsheet named 1stRunRemoveNameAndAtSymbol.xlsx

In 1stRunRemoveNameAndAtSymbol.xlsx, delete the 1st row “Email To”

Go here to learn how to remove the username from the email address http://pakaccountants.com/excel-split-extract-username-domain-email/ but essentially you put the function in row B1 and then copy the function down the column.

=RIGHT(A1,LEN(A1)-FIND(“@”,A1))

Excel wants you to type out the formula (instead of copy/paste) in the first cell B1, then apply formula down the column.

Apply formula to an entire column or row without dragging by Fill feature

In Excel, Select the entire Column B, and then click Home > Fill > Down.

Apply formula fill down
Apply formula fill down

Copy and Paste (Paste – Special->ValuesOnly) the resulting Domains (only) to a new sheet and name

1stRunDomainsOnlyDate.xlsx

Now you should have 3 files:

1st Run Files

In Symantec Message Labs go to Services > Encryption > existing TLS Business Partners

Download All -> get TLSBusinessPartners.csv > rename to TLSBusinessPartnersDate.csv copy to same folder, so you should have 4 files. In the 1stRunRepDomainsOnlyDate.xlsx you may want to remove all the empty cells with #VALUE! From the bottom of the file.

Create a new folder named Compare, and copy 1stRunRepDomainsOnlyDate.xlsx and TLSBusinessPartnersDate.csv into the folder:

Compare domains files

Remove all domains in TLSBusinessPartners file that are current Partners (as well as those existing in previously completed procedure runs.) – To do so,

Open 1stRunRepDomainsOnlyDate.xlsx. Create a new Sheet 2.

Open TLSBusinessPartners.. file and copy the column with only the domain names Column labeled “Business Partner Domain” into Sheet 2

Run compare and remove all domains that exist in TLS.BP.Date from 1stRunRDODate.

Rename Sheet1 “CleanTheseOfDups”, Rename Sheet 2 “Test”

Scrub the domains of duplicates. Copy all the Business Partner Domains AND be sure to include all of the domains listed in TLS Enforcement page into Test sheet (selecting with the mouse, copy from website, and paste into excel works, just remove the hyperlinks).

Populate test worksheet with existing domains

Next, select Sheet 1 then go to the Data tab and click Remove Duplicates:

Remove duplicate domains

Click OK

Duplicate domains removed

Add a new row to A1 top level and add header named: “CleanThese” for Column A and “Business Partner Domains” for Column B

Copy existing Business Partner unique domains in Test sheet to B1

Should now look something like this:

Clean domains of existing domains

Now Filter for Unique values:

 

  1. Click on the Column Header to highlight Column A. Select the Conditional Formatting button on the Home tab.
  2. Select the New Rule option from the Conditional Formatting button drop-down list. Select “Use a formula to determine which cells to format" as a rule in the New Formatting Rule window.
  3. Proceed by entering the following formula in the “Format values where this formula is true" box: =countif($B:$B, $A1)
  4. Click on the Format button and specify the format you want to set. It is possible to set a different cell color for duplicate values by clicking the Fill tab and selecting a background color. (Orange)
  5. After having specified the format you want click OK.

Credit: http://spreadsheetpro.net/comparing-two-columns-unique-values/

After comparing the two columns using the guide above, your spreadsheet should look something like the following:

Compare two columns in excel

6. Right click on for example A3, and choose Filter> By Selected Cell’s color.

Copy only those cells NOT HIGHLIGHTED WITH COLOR results in column A to new file named 2ndRunScrubbed.txt and place in folder…

Second run scrubbed

Now we need to add ‘test@’ to beginning of each line. To do so, Open the 2ndRunScrubbed file in Notepad++

One method that doesn’t involve find/replace (but only works if you want to do it on every line, including blank lines in your block), is this:

  • Move your cursor to the start of the first line
  • Hold down Alt + Shift and use the cursor down key to extend the selection to the end of the block, Then type in test@

This allows you to type on every line simultaneously.

You should now have a list of email addresses with all of your unique domains that you want to test at CheckTLS.com

Normalize domains as email addresses for testing

Save the resulting file as 2ndRunScrubbed1-9-17_TestTLSReady.txt

Log into checktls.com and run checks, get weights, and add the new business partners and enforcements.

http://checktls.com/tests.html#Batch

CheckTLS batch test 1

CheckTLS batch test: Once you’ve uploaded the file, hit R(u)n Test Now to initiate the testing. One domain takes 5 minutes, so 4000 domains can take 4 hours or so. An estimate from checktls.com will be given.

CheckTLS batch test 3

Once the report arrives via email, copy the data in email to a new file named TLSCheckReportResults1-9-17.xlsx

Next, find CertOK is a value of 33 or 0, but the TLSAvailable=100 and NegotiatedTLS=100

To do this, do Ctrl+A then Sort & Filter > Custom Sort > Sort by CertOK > Sort on Values > Order Custom List: 33, 0 > OK > OK

(Column H is Cert OK) so Select only those that are anything other than 100, copy the rows to a new spreadsheet named

TLSCheckReportResultsCertOK33-Date.xlsx

Sort the TLSCheckReportResultsCertOK33 file by TLSAvailable=100 and NegotiatedTLS=100

To do this, first remove all columns except EMailAddress, TLSAvailable, CertOK, and NegotiatedTLS=100

Do another custom sort; select columns labeled TLSAvailable, Cert OK, and NegotiatedTLS, and Sort by Column B (TLS) then by Column D (SenderOK/Sec) Largest to Smallest:

Excel custom sort columns on values largest to smallest

Select only those rows that have at least TLSAvailable = 100 … CertOK(%) … NegotiatedTLS = 100; where CertOK % is less than 100:

Excel custom sort results

Copy these values to a new .xlsx file and folder named:

TLSCheckSortTLSAvailable100Negotiated100-Date

Copy custom sort results above into a new .xlsx file and rename the filename the same as the folder name.

Remove everything except the domain name (remove ‘test@’) from this file. Follow instructions above – delete columns B, C, D, then formula =RIGHT(A1,LEN(A1)-FIND(“@”,A1))  – then fill down (select column first)

Copy resulting domains to a new .txt file named:

TLSCheckSortTLS-DomainOnly-Final-Date.txt

Now we need to add the tested domains to the Business Partner for the week. Eg. RepDomains-Date in Symantec.

Log into Symantec Cloud,

Services > Encryption > TLS Business Partners > Add new BP > RepDomains-Date > Upload New Business Partner Domains > Uncheck “Enabled” > choose file > select TLSCheckSortTLS-DomainOnly-Final-Date.txt > Save

Upload New TLS Business Partner Domains

Now that all of the new unique domains have been imported, we need to test them within Symantec and change Certificate Validation from Strong to Relaxed if required.

Click on the domain name, hit the TLS Test button, and if the TLS connectivity fails, hit Close, change the Certificate Validation to “Relaxed” and then Save.

Relaxed certificate validation

Go through each of the newly uploaded domains, and when finished, make sure to ENABLE TLS Encryption enforcement in the TLS Enforcements tab.

Take those in the list that test correctly and are enforced and add to Data Protection Exceptions. Services > Data Protection > PBE Advanced TLS the Portal Trigger Template > (scroll down) Recipient Exclude Domain List  > Edit List >  Add List Items > Add

It’s a good idea to repeat this procedure every so often so that you catch mail that is being delivered to the secure portal unnecessarily. Hopefully, this procedure will help someone save some time if they have the same task, or at the least help someone sort and scrub email addresses and domains.